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DIY Analog Lab Bench Power Supply 0-30V 0-4A / Fuente de Alimentación para Laboratorio Casera 0-30V 0-4A

Sep 14th, 2020 | by: Alejandro Quirós
Category: Electronics Components
Views 1551

En primer lugar, mi proyecto consiste en el diseño, fabricación y montaje de la PCB de una fuente de alimentación analógica casera diseñada para un laboratorio de electrónica. Las características de PCB que dan cuerpo y funcionalidad a dicha fuente de laboratorio consiste en tensión de salida regulable desde un mínimo de prácticamente 0 voltios hasta un máximo de 30 voltios ajustable mediante un potenciómetro lineal externo, es cortocircuitable gracias a una resistencia que actúa como “shunt” en serie con la salida del dispositivo y, finalmente, regulación de intensidad máxima de salida del mismo modo con un potenciómetro de ajuste externo.

En relación con el diseño de la PCB, ha sido realizado mediante Photoshop utilizando trazados de máscara negra sobre un fondo blanco, emulando de este modo el trazado de las pistas de la PCB en un software de diseño electrónico EDA, localizando de la misma manera y al mismo tiempo, los “pads” de los componentes que componen la PCB para, posteriormente, interconectarlos de la manera deseada.

A continuación, en cuanto a la fabricación a nivel físico de la PCB, mediante una impresora láser se ha impreso el diseño en modo espejo en papel fotográfico no lacado, como el de las revistas, y, seguidamente, utilizando el método de planchado se ha transferido dicha tinta a la PCB que, posteriormente, a través de una solución de peróxido de hidrogeno y ácido clorhídrico se ha eliminado el cobre no deseado descubierto por la imagen transferida, de este modo, después del paso por ácido de la PCB obtenemos el trazado el cobre de las pistas necesarias para interconectar todos los elementos que la componen.

En cuento a conexiones externas del PCB tenemos: un conector de dos vías para una entrada de 220V conectada directamente a un transformador encapsulado que genera la tensión de referencia para que el PCB funcione, un conector de dos vías que funciona como salida de 220V, por ejemplo, para un ventilador de refrigeración, un conector de dos vías para la entrada de 24 voltios de corriente alterna a 4 amperios principales para el funcionamiento de la fuente; tres conectores de dos vías que actúan como salida principal del dispositivo, conexión para amperímetro y voltímetro y, finalmente, tres conectores de tres vías que actúan como conexión para los dos potenciómetros de ajuste de salida, tanto voltaje como intensidad, y, el último conectores dedicado a la conexión de los terminales del transistor de potencia 2N3055 que debe ir colocado en un disipador externo.

Finalmente, en cuanto a consejos que puedo dar a la hora de realizar dicho proyecto, debo decir que es un proyecto muy sencillo que no presenta dificultad gracias a la sencillez de los componentes electrónicos que lo componentes, tales como, componentes pasivos como una cuantas resistencias y condensadores, y los principales componentes de ajustes que únicamente se trata de 5 transistores NPN.

Lista de componentes: resistencias de carbón de 1W, 10k, 1k, 47R, 470R, 82R; condensadores electrolíticos, 47uF a 50V, 220uF a 35V y 2200uF a 50V, condensadores no polarizados, 820pF, diodos, 1N5408, 1N4007, 1N5919, transistores NPN, 2N3055, BD139, BD137, BC167, resistencia shunt cerámica bobinada 10W entres 0R22 y 0R33, transformador encapsulado de 9V de salida alterna, puente de diodos superior a 4 amperios y, finalmente, seis conectores de 2 vías de paso 5.08 mm y tres conectores de tres vías de paso 5.08 mm.

 

First of all, my project consists of the design, manufacture and assembly of the PCB of a homemade analog power supply designed for an electronics laboratory. The PCB characteristics that give body and functionality to said laboratory source consist of an adjustable output voltage from a minimum of practically 0 volts to a maximum of 30 volts, adjustable by means of an external linear potentiometer, it is short-circuitable thanks to a resistance that acts as " shunt ”in series with the device output and finally maximum output current regulation in the same way with an external adjustment potentiometer.

In relation to the PCB design, it has been made using Photoshop using black mask traces on a white background, thus emulating the tracing of the PCB tracks in an EDA electronic design software, locating in the same way and at the same time, the “pads” of the components that make up the PCB to later interconnect them in the desired way.

Next, as regards the physical manufacturing of the PCB, using a laser printer the design was printed in mirror mode on uncoated photographic paper, such as that of magazines, and then using the ironing method it has been transferred said ink to the PCB that, later, through a solution of hydrogen peroxide and hydrochloric acid, the unwanted copper discovered by the transferred image has been eliminated, in this way, after the passage through acid of the PCB we obtain the trace the copper of the tracks necessary to interconnect all the elements that compose it.

Regarding external connections of the PCB we have: a two-way connector for a 220V input connected directly to an encapsulated transformer that generates the reference voltage for the PCB to work, a two-way connector that works as a 220V output, for For example, for a cooling fan, a two-way connector for 24 volt AC input at 4 main amps for source operation; three two-way connectors that act as the main output of the device, connection for ammeter and voltmeter and, finally, three three-way connectors that act as connection for the two output adjustment potentiometers, both voltage and current, and the last connectors dedicated to the connection of the terminals of the power transistor 2N3055 that must be placed on an external heatsink.

Finally, in terms of advice that I can give when carrying out this project, I must say that it is a very simple project that does not present difficulties thanks to the simplicity of the electronic components that make it up, such as passive components such as a few resistors. and capacitors, and the main components of adjustments that it is only 5 NPN transistors.

Component list: 1W, 10k, 1k, 47R, 470R, 82R carbon resistors; electrolytic capacitors, 47uF at 50V, 220uF at 35V and 2200uF at 50V, non-polarized capacitors, 820pF, diodes, 1N5408, 1N4007, 1N5919, NPN transistors, 2N3055, BD139, BD137, BC167, 10W wire-wound ceramic shunt resistor between 0R33, and 0R22 9V encapsulated transformer with alternating output, diode bridge greater than 4 amps and, finally, six 2-way connectors with 5.08 mm pitch and three three-way connectors with 5.08 mm pitch.

PHOTO GALLERY



Final PCB DIY Design view 1 / Diseño del PBC final vista 1
Final PCB DIY Design view 2 / Diseño del PBC final vista 2
DIY Analog Lab Bench Power Supply 0-30V 0-4A Schematic

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